An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware, software resources, and provides common services for computer programs.
An optical fiber is a flexible, transparent fiber made by drawing glass (silica) or plastic to a diameter slightly thicker than that of a human hair. Optical fibers are used most often as a means to transmit light between the two ends of the fiber and find wide usage in fiber-optic communications, where they permit transmission over longer distances and at higher bandwidths (data rates) than electrical cables. Fibers are used instead of metal wires because signals travel along them with less loss; in addition, fibers are immune to electromagnetic interference, a problem from which metal wires suffer. Fibers are also used for illumination and imaging, and are often wrapped in bundles so they may be used to carry light into, or images out of confined spaces, as in the case of a fiberscope. Specially designed fibers are also used for a variety of other applications, some of them being fiber optic sensors and fiber lasers.
An optical telescope is a telescope that gathers and focuses light, mainly from the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum, to create a magnified image for direct view, or to make a photograph, or to collect data through electronic image sensors.
There are three primary types of optical telescope:
- refractors, which use lenses (dioptrics)
- reflectors, which use mirrors (catoptrics)
- catadioptric telescopes, which combine lenses and mirrors
Orange S.A. (French pronunciation: [ɔʁɑ̃ʒ ɛs‿a]), formerly France Télécom S.A. stylized as: france telecom , is a French multinational telecommunications corporation. It has 266 million customers worldwide and employs 89,000 people in France, and 59,000 elsewhere. It is the tenth largest mobile network operator in the world and the fourth largest in Europe after Vodafone, Telefónica and VEON. In 2015, the group had revenue of €40 billion. The company’s head office is located in the 15th arrondissement of Paris. The current CEO is Stéphane Richard. The company is a component of the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index.
Orange has been the company’s main brand for mobile, landline, internet and IPTV services since 2006. It originated in 1994 when Hutchison Whampoa acquired a controlling stake in Microtel Communications during the early 1990s and rebranded it as “Orange”. It became a subsidiary of Mannesmann in 1999 and was acquired by France Télécom in 2000. The company was rebranded as Orange on 1 July 2013.
Orange Polska (formerly Telekomunikacja Polska) is a Polish telecommunications provider established in December 1991. It is a public company traded on the Warsaw Stock Exchange, with a controlling stake owned by Orange S.A., the latter controlling over 50% of this stake by 2002. It operates the following services: PSTN, ISDN, GSM 900/1800 network, ADSL, IDSL, Frame Relay, ATM and Inmarsat.
The company was established in December 1991 as a joint stock company of the State Treasury, following the division of the communist era state-owned entity Polish Post, Telegraph and Telephone. On January 1, 1992, the company was created under the name of ‘TPSA’. The company changed its ownership structure in 1998 and began trading on the Warsaw Stock Exchange in 2000. In the same year, the Treasury sold a 35% stake in TPSA to a consortium of France Télécom and Kulczyk Holding, with the consortium increasing its stake by a further 12.5% in 2001.
On 21 December 2007 company was fined PLN 75 million (approximately EUR 20.7 million) by the Polish Office for Competition and Consumer Protection for discriminating against its competitors on the internet services market.
Full privatisation of the company was completed in May 2010.
In 2010 the company reported that they were nearing 500,000 pay TV subscribers, with the number now being 695,000 (as of late 2012). The company currently serves approximately 5.6 million broadband customers.
In 2011 TPSA had a $430 million claim filed against them by GN Store Nord (GN), which owns 75% of DPTG, in the second phase of an arbitration trial. Bloomberg reported that, “DPTG won a 2.2 billion-krone award in September at an arbitration tribunal in Vienna. The tribunal said the company had improperly calculated what it owed DPTG for a fiber-optic transmission system the venture installed in 1991. “TPSA” owed payments based on data traffic over the network. The companies disagreed over how to measure the traffic and spent nine years in arbitration. The September award covered traffic from 1994 to 2004, and the new claim refers to 2004 to 2009. TPSA has not paid the first award and has filed a complaint about the arbitration, while GN has started enforcement proceedings in Poland and the Netherlands.”
On 16 April 2012, Telekomunikacja Polska was renamed Orange Polska, in line with France Télécom’s international telecommunications branding.